Saturday, October 9, 2021

Bronze Age DBA Part 7 - The Plain Before Troy

Well, after a sojourn in the Americas, it is back to familiar territory for my latest DBA army: I/26 Later Mycenaean & Trojan War! The historicity of the Trojan War has stirred a lot of debate over the years, so about all I will say is that my views have been indelibly marked by having a copy of Peter Conolly's The Legend of Odysseus floating around since childhood. (And I suspect I am not the only one.) My intention with this one was to build a single army that could match either the I/26a Achaian or I/26b Trojan lists, rather than two entire armies; for now their opponents are likely to be my Hittites and Sea Peoples.

The whole army together

The figures here are all my usual 20mm plastics, mostly Caesar Miniatures' Mycenaean and Trojan army sets and their Mycenaean Chariots. I mixed and matched pretty freely between these sets; I don't see any indication that there was a lot of difference in equipment between the two sides (and anyway, the Iliad seems to suggest that arms and armor were swapped back and forth or taken as trophies on a regular basis). There are also a few head-swaps and other minor conversions in the mix.

LCh or 4Bd general

First up, we have the general in his light chariot. DBA allows the charioteers to dismount and fight as solid Blades instead, so I made sure to have that option available. The banner is not especially historical, alas, but I wanted to be able to distinguish the dismounted general at a glance. (Bonus point to anyone who can figure out the source of the horse head finial!)

3x LCh or 4Bd

Here are the other three light chariots, along with their dismounted solid Blades counterparts. (The outer two men in each stand of Blades match the two men on foot for the corresponding chariot unit.) The keenly observant may note that I have made some substitutions in the chariot crews - the ones Caesar includes look to me to be more suited for an earlier period. Hence, no Dendra armor here. There's also some historical debate over whether Mycenaean chariotry was equipped with bows - mine are, because I had lots of spare archers, and few spare spearmen.

6x Sp

The core of both army lists is a block of Spears - the Achaians can have up to six, and the Trojans up to five. One minor complaint I have about the Caesar sets is that a lot of the shields have a grooved texture that I expect is supposed to represent wood - I'd have liked to have been able to paint more of them as animal hide.

2x Ps

Both armies can deploy a couple of stands of slingers as psiloi. Unfortunately, the sets only contain a single slinger pose. The second fellow from the left is actually a spare chariot driver who has had his limbs repositioned; the one to his right is a Punic War figure that I have borrowed before.

2x 4Pk (Pylians)

The Achaians are allowed to replace two of the Spears with solid Pike (representing troops equipped in an older style with long two-handed spears). I actually got pretty far with painting these before I decided that they really ought to have shields, so I had to go back in and add those. Unfortunately, neither set includes a really proper figure-of-eight shield, so I made do with what was available.

4Wb (Myrmidons)

The Achians may also replace one of their psiloi with a solid Warband unit representing Achilles' Myrmidons. I tried to distinguish these from the regular Blades or Spear by giving them a mix of hand weapons, and black shields and plumes.

3Bd (Lukka/Lycians)

The Trojans are allowed to replace a Spear unit with a fast Blade unit representing Lukka allies or mercenaries. (The Lukka also feature prominently in the lists of the Sea Peoples, and seem to have lived a somewhat piratical lifestyle along the southwest coast of Anatolia.) The figures here are Caesar Philistines.

3Bw or Ps

Finally, the Trojans get a unit of bowmen, as either Psiloi or fast Bows.

Another angle on the whole army

This is probably the largest of the DBA armies I have painted in the last couple of years, so I am ready for a break after these! I do have one more Bronze Age army in mind, but I will need to resolve some supply issues before I am ready to work on them. Fortunately, I have no lack of other miniatures to paint in the meantime - and maybe I'll even be able to get some of these guys on the table for a game!

(Also, if anyone here is not already familiar with the work of Philotep (favored of Ptah, god of artisans) by all means check out his blog! His latest post has me itching to try painting some plaid.)

Friday, August 27, 2021

The Great DBA Census

Earlier this month, over on the Fanaticus forum, a question came up about whether there were any DBA armies that had never been built. I was sufficiently curious to put together a survey and post it in a few places around the internet - the Fanaticus and Lead Adventure forums, the r/wargaming subreddit, and a couple of DBA-focused Facebook groups. The survey ran from August 3-August 26, and there were 257 responses (of which 37 were entirely blank - most likely from people clicking through to check the results). No personal data was collected, only a list of which DBA armies the respondents had available for gaming. For those curious, the survey itself can be viewed here, and a spreadsheet with the responses can be viewed here.

Overall statistics

The DBA 3.0 rules include 604 army lists, divided by period into four books. Of these, all but one were captured in the survey - the only one not reported was III/59 Toltec. In total, our 220 respondents reported 10,393 armies. (Due to the way the DBA army lists are structured, there is a high level of overlap between these - for example, a player who can field an Alexandrian Macedonian army is likely able to use the same troops for many of the armies of Alexander's successors.)

The ten most popular armies overall were as follows:
    1. II/11 Gallic - 83 armies
    2. II/33 Polybian Roman - 77 armies
    3. II/56 Early Imperial Roman - 75 armies
    4. II/49 Marian Roman - 73 armies
    5. II/32a Later Carthaginian 275-202 BC - 71 armies
    6. II/5b Later Hoplite Greek (Athenian) 448-278 BC - 66 armies
    7. II/53 Ancient British - 65 armies
    8. II/12 Alexandrian Macedonian - 64 armies
    9. (tie) III/40b Viking 850-1280 AD / II/78a Late Imperial Roman (Western) - 61 armies

The armies of Book II, the Classical period, would seem to have the greatest appeal, as they dominate the top ten list.

Aside from the absent Toltecs, there were ten armies that were unique, only appearing once each in the survey results. These were:
  • I/4c Hurrian or Early Kassite or Nairi
  • I/39a Urartian 880-765 BC
  • I/49a Van-lang or Au Lac Vietnamese 700-207 BC
  • I/49c Early Vietnamese 110 BC-247 AD
  • II/29 Tien and K'un-ming Chinese
  • III/42a Sha-t'o Turkish 808-880 AD
  • III/42b Sha-t'o Turkish 881-951 AD
  • III/60 Medieval Vietnamese
  • IV/25 Later Bulgar
  • IV/37d Other Indonesian and Malay
I thought it would be interesting to look at the distribution of the army popularity data, so I put together a chart to show it:

(Min: 0, Q1: 6, Med: 13, Q2: 24.25, Max: 83, Mean: 17.2)

This suggests that a lot of the results are going to be a bit skewed; there are a small number of extremely popular army lists at the top of the heap, but the bulk of them fall at the lower end of the scale. The average army appears about 17 times in our data, but the median army appears only 13 times. (Not to be confused with the I/41b Median army, which appears 8 times!)

Next, let's take a look at how the different books match up!

Book I

Book I, the Chariot Period, generally covers from 3000-500 BC. There are 142 army lists in Book I. Of the 220 respondents, 147 reported owning at least one Book I army, with 1,875 reported in total. The top ten armies for this period were:

    1. I/22a New Kingdom Egyptian 1543-1200 BC - 53 armies
    2. I/48 Thracian - 47 armies
    3. I/22b New Kingdom Egyptian 1199-1069 BC - 46 armies
    4. I/52f Later Athenian Hoplite 540-449 BC - 45 armies
    5. I/28 Sea Peoples - 44 armies
    6. I/52e Early Athenian Hoplite 668-541 BC - 42 armies
    7. (tie) I/52b Spartan Hoplite 668-449 BC/ I/52c Thessalian Hoplite 668-449 BC - 41 armies
    9. I/43b Skythian 300-19 BC or Early Hu 400 BC-70 AD - 40 armies
    10. I/52d Theban Hoplite 668-449 BC - 39 armies

Hoplite armies make up most of the list here, presumably either as opponents for each other, or for the Achaemenid Persians, who didn't quite make the top ten. Ancient Egypt is also a popular topic, with the Sea Peoples providing some opposition for them. The Later Hittite Imperial list also narrowly missed the top ten.

Book II

Book II, the Classical Period, generally covers from 500 BC-476 AD. It is the largest of the four books, and includes 193 army lists. Of the 220 respondents, 189 reported owning at least one Book II army, with 4,779 reported in total. The top ten armies for this period are:

    1. II/11 Gallic - 83 armies
    2. II/33 Polybian Roman - 77 armies
    3. II/56 Early Imperial Roman - 75 armies
    4. II/49 Marian Roman - 73 armies
    5. II/32a Later Carthaginian 275-202 BC - 71 armies
    6. II/5b Later Hoplite Greek (Athenian) 448-278 BC - 66 armies
    7. II/53 Ancient British - 65 armies
    8. II/12 Alexandrian Macedonian - 64 armies
    9. II/78a Late Imperial Roman (Western) - 61 armies
    10. II/32b Later Carthaginian 201-146 BC - 59 armies

Rome in general and the Punic Wars in particular seem to be especially popular in this era, but the Gauls manage to be the single most collected army - more than a third of respondents have a Gallic army tucked away somewhere! My guess is that this is because they make convenient opponents for Romans of several eras, as well as being a third army that fits with a Roman/Carthaginian pair. 

Book III

Book III, the Early Medieval Period, extends from 476-1071 AD, and contains 129 army lists. 147 respondents reported owning at least one Book III army, for a total of 1,709 armies. The top ten armies for this period were:

    1. III/40b Viking 850-1280 AD - 61 armies
    2. III/40a Viking 790-849 AD - 53 armies
    3. III/52 West Frankish or Norman - 51 armies
    4. III/72 Anglo-Danish - 40 armies
    5. (tie) III/19a Welsh 580-1149 AD/ III/40c Leidang 790-1070 AD - 33 armies
    7. (tie) III/19c North Welsh 1150-1420 AD/ III/24b Middle Anglo-Saxon 701-1016 AD - 29 armies
    9. (tie) III/46 Norse Irish / III/53 East Frankish - 28 armies

Do you see a pattern here? The Dark Ages seem to be the biggest draw to this period, with three out of four sublists of III/40 Norse making the top ten here, and most of the rest being potential Viking opponents in the British Isles or Northern Europe. (The Norman Conquest may be a factor as well.)

Book IV

Book IV, the High Medieval Period, covers 1071-1500 AD, and includes 140 army lists. It seems to be the second-most popular, with 154 respondents reporting at least one Book IV army, for a total of 2,030. The top ten armies for this period were:

    1. IV/83a Wars of the Roses 1455-1485 AD or Tudor English 1486-1515 AD - 46 armies
    2. (tie) IV/62b Hundred Years War English 1334-1414 AD / IV/62c Hundred Years War English 1415-1422 AD - 43 armies
    4. (tie) IV/17 Later Crusader / 1V/64c Medieval French 1401-1445 AD - 41 armies
    6. IV/62d Hundred Years War English 1423-1455 AD - 40 armies
    7. (tie) IV/13c Medieval German 1440-1493 AD / IV/62a Hundred Years War English 1322-1333 AD - 39 armies
    9. IV/64b Medieval French 1347-1400 AD - 37 armies
    10. IV/3 Anglo-Norman - 36 armies

The Hundred Years War seems to be the most popular topic in this book, as all four English sublists and their French opponents make the top ten.

Other observations

Obviously, there are a lot of reasons why one army list might be more popular than another. For example:
  • The historical period. Famous wars and well-known generals are likely to draw more interest.
  • Game rules and balance. Within the DBA rules, some armies may have an advantage in the quality or types of troops they have available, and some gamers might choose to build armies with that in mind, especially for tournament play.
  • Availability of suitable miniatures. Even if you find an army interesting and think it would be enjoyable to play, if you can't find figures it might not get built.
With that in mind, I decided to have a look at a few subsets of the data to see if there was a noticeable difference in popularity between them:

On the left we have our baseline - the whole set of responses. Next we have the four books by period. It's a little difficult to see much difference here, though Book II does seem to rise above the other three. Next, we have three geographical subsets - in the back of the rulebook, there is a section which divides the various army lists by their region of origin. I pulled out three of these to look at: the British Isles, China, and the Americas & the Pacific. Here we can see that British armies are massively more popular compared to the other two categories: the rarest, most obscure of the British armies, IV/21a Anglo-Irish 1172-1299 AD, still appears 10 times in our data! Half of the British armies appear 26 times or more. Compare that with the American armies, the most popular of which, IV/63 Azetc, appears 29 times! Finally, I went through and found all the armies which include elephants - I was expecting this to be a big draw, but that doesn't really seem to be the case. Armies with elephants don't seem particularly over-represented.

MinimumFirst QuartileMedianThird QuartileMaximum
All Armies061324.2583
Book I158.51853
Book II11015.52383
Book III06111861
Book IV161120.2546
American & Pacific03.7556.529

The big list

Finally, for anyone who would like to peruse the rankings themselves, here are all the army lists in descending order of frequency/popularity:

Army ListNumber Reported
II/11 Gallic83
II/33 Polybian Roman77
II/56 Early Imperial Roman75
II/49 Marian Roman73
II/32a Later Carthaginian 275-202 BC71
II/5b Later Hoplite Greek (Athenian) 448-278 BC66
II/53 Ancient British65
II/12 Alexandrian Macedonian64
II/78a Late Imperial Roman (Western) 307-408 AD61
III/40b Viking 850-1280 AD61
II/32b Later Carthaginian 201-146 BC59
II/5a Later Hoplite Greek (Spartan in Greece) 448-276 BC56
II/5c Later Hoplite Greek (Theban) 448-278 BC54
II/15 Alexandrian Imperial54
I/22a New Kingdom Egyptian 1543-1200 BC53
III/40a Viking 790-849 AD53
II/3a Classical Indian 500 BC-178 AD52
II/64a Middle Imperial Roman (Western) 193-324 AD52
II/78b Late Imperial Roman (Eastern) 307-408 AD52
III/52 West Frankish or Norman51
II/5g Later Hoplite Greek (Italiot) 448-280 BC50
II/5d Later Hoplite Greek (Thessalian)48
I/48 Thracian47
II/7 Later Achaemenid Persian47
II/37 Parthian47
II/40 Numidian or Early Moorish47
I/22b New Kingdom Egyptian 1199-1069 BC46
II/19a Seleucid 320-280 BC46
II/19c Seleucid 204-167 BC46
II/39b Celtiberian 240-20 BC46
IV/83a Wars of the Roses 1455-1485 AD or Tudor English 1486-1515 AD46
I/52f Later Athenian Hoplite 540-449 BC45
II/5i Other hoplite in Greece 448-225 BC45
II/19b Seleucid 279-205 BC45
II/39a Iberian 240-20 BC45
I/28 Sea Peoples44
II/27b Pyrrhic 280-272 BC44
II/19d Seleucid 166-64 BC43
II/64b Middle Imperial Roman (Eastern) 193-324 AD43
II/80a Hunnic (Attila) 433-453 AD43
IV/62b Hundred Years War English 1334-1414 AD43
IV/62c Hundred Years War English 1415-1422 AD43
I/52e Early Athenian Hoplite 668-541 BC42
II/5h Later Hoplite Greek (Siciliot) 448-280 BC42
I/52b Spartan Hoplite 668-449 BC41
I/52c Thessalian Hoplite 668-449 BC41
II/16a Asiatic Early Successor (Antigonos) 320-301 BC41
II/16d Asiatic Early Successor (Eumenes) 320-316 BC41
II/47b Early German (Ariovistus) 58 BC41
IV/17 Later Crusader41
IV/64c Medieval French 1401-1445 AD41
I/43b Skythian 300-19 BC or Early Hu 400 BC-70 AD40
III/72 Anglo-Danish40
IV/62d Hundred Years War English 1423-1455 AD40
I/52d Theban Hoplite 668-449 BC39
II/5f Later Hoplite Greek (Phokian) 357-347 BC39
IV/13c Medieval German 1440-1493 AD39
IV/62a Hundred Years War English 1322-1333 AD39
II/16b Asiatic Early Successor (Demetrios) 315-285 BC38
II/52 Dacian or Carpi38
II/82a Patrician Roman (Western) 408-493 AD38
I/52j Any Other Hoplite37
II/30b Galatian 273-65 BC37
II/82b Patrician Roman (Eastern) 408-493 AD37
IV/64b Medieval French 1347-1400 AD37
I/24b Later Hittite Imperial 1274-1180 BC36
II/5e Later Hoplite Greek (Aitolian) 448-279 BC or (Akarnanian) 448-225 BC36
II/10 Camillan Roman36
II/16c Asiatic Early Successor (Alketas) 320 BC36
II/30a Galatian 280-274 BC36
IV/3 Anglo-Norman36
I/52i Italiot or Siciliot Hoplite 668-449 BC35
II/18a Macedonian Early Successor (Antipatros) 320-319 BC35
II/18c Macedonian Early Successor (Kassandros) 318-298 BC35
II/18e Macedonian Early Successor (Antigonos Gonatas) 277-260 BC35
II/18f Macedonian Early Successor (Queen Olympias) 317-316 BC35
II/20a Ptolemaic 320-275 BC35
II/20b Ptolemaic 274-167 BC35
IV/13b Medieval German 1151-1439 AD35
IV/35 Mongol Conquest35
II/27a Pyrrhic 300-281 BC34
II/68a Pictish 211-499 AD34
IV/7 Early Crusader34
IV/13d Medieval German 1494-1518 AD34
IV/85a Burgundian Ordonnance 1471-1477 AD34
I/60c Achaemenid Persian 539-420 BC33
I/61b Early Carthaginian 340-275 BC33
II/5j Overseas mercenary expeditions33
II/18b Macedonian Early Successor (Polyperchon) 319-310 BC33
II/18d Macedonian Early Successor (Ptolemy Keraunos) 280-279 BC33
II/69b Sassanid Persian 225-493 AD33
III/19a Welsh 580-1149 AD33
III/40c Leidang 790-1070 AD33
I/52g Asiatic Greek Hoplite 668-449 BC32
II/9a Syracusan in Sicily32
II/17a Lysimachid 320-303 BC32
II/17b Lysimachid 302-281 BC32
II/47g Other Early German32
I/60a Achaemenid Persian 550-547 BC31
II/16e Peithon, Peucastas, or other minor Asiatic Successor 320-314 BC31
II/30c Galatian 64-25 BC31
IV/4b Feudal French 1200-1330 AD31
IV/30 Teutonic Order31
IV/59b Post-Mongol Samurai 1465-1542 AD31
IV/61 Italian Condotta31
I/6b Midianite, Amalekite, or Early Arab30
II/23a Later Pre-Islamic Nomad Arab 312 BC-633 AD30
II/35 Later Macedonian30
II/73 Old Saxon, Frisian, Bavarian, Thuringian, and Early Anglo-Saxon30
IV/64a Medieval French 1330-1346 AD30
IV/79b Later Swiss 1425-1477 AD30
II/3b Classical Indian 179-545 AD29
II/20c Ptolemaic 166-54 BC29
II/74b Palmyran (Zenobia) 271-273 AD29
II/81a Sub-Roman British (Arthur) 407-470 AD29
III/19c North Welsh 1150-1420 AD29
III/24b Middle Anglo-Saxon 701-1016 AD29
IV/63 Aztec29
II/45c Spartacus 74-71 BC28
II/68b Pictish 500-842 AD28
III/46 Norse Irish28
III/53 East Frankish28
IV/23 Feudal English28
IV/82a French Ordonnance 1445-1480 AD28
IV/85b Burgundian Ordonnance 1478-1506 AD28
I/3 Nubian27
II/5k Spartan overseas expeditions 428-422 BC and 396-394 BC27
II/20d Ptolemaic 53-30 BC27
II/58 Alan27
II/80d Other Hunnic 374-558 AD27
III/4a Early Byzantine 493-544 AD27
III/34b Andalusian 766-1172 AD27
IV/4a Feudal French 1072-1199 AD27
IV/79d Later Swiss 1478-1522 AD27
I/43a Kimmerian or Skythian 750-301 BC26
I/52a Argive Hoplite 669-449 BC26
II/36a Greco-Bactrian26
II/47c Batavian (Civilis) 69 AD26
II/69c Sassanid Persian 494-651 AD26
III/4b Early Byzantine 545-578 AD26
III/25a Arab Conquest 622-638 AD26
III/33 Early Muslim North Africa and Sicily26
III/40d Leidang 1071-1280 AD26
IV/59a Post-Mongol Samurai 1300-1464 AD26
I/7a Early Libyan 3000-1251 BC25
I/45 Neo-Assyrian25
II/2 Mountain Indian25
II/47f Suevi 19-49 AD25
III/19b South Welsh 1100-1197 AD25
IV/13a Medieval German 1106-1150 AD25
IV/80 Hussite25
I/7b Early Libyan 1250-666 BC24
I/52h Aitolian or Akarnanian 668-449 BC24
II/1 Republican Indian24
II/5l Black Sea Greeks 410-310 BC24
II/39c Lusitanian 240-20 BC24
II/69a Sassanid Persian 220-224 AD24
II/74a Palmyran (Odenathus) 260-271 AD24
III/28 Carolingian Frankish24
III/55 Early Samurai24
IV/83b Rebel (Henry Tudor) 1485 AD24
I/18 Minoan or Early Mycenaean23
I/61a Early Carthaginian 550-341 BC23
II/41a Western Han Chinese 202 BC-24 AD23
II/47d Other Batavian or Cherusci23
II/48 Mithridatic23
II/83a Later Visigothic 419-621 AD23
III/25b Arab Conquest 639-660 AD23
III/34a Andalusian 710-765 AD23
III/37a Abbasid Arab 747-835 AD23
IV/55b Ottoman 1362-1520 AD23
IV/79a Later Swiss 1400-1424 AD23
II/36b Greco-Indian22
II/47a Cimbri or Teutones 113-102 BC22
II/47e Marcomanni of Maroboduus 9 BC-19 AD22
II/54b Scots-Irish 433-841 AD22
II/81b Sub-Roman British (Vortigern) 429-441 AD22
III/37b Abbasid Arab 836-945 AD22
IV/82b French Ordonnance 1481-1515 AD22
I/1b Early Sumerian 2799-2334 BC21
I/25a Middle Assyrian 1365-883 BC21
I/29a Early Philistine 1166-600 BC21
I/47 Illyrian21
III/65 Nikephorian Byzantine21
IV/20 Ayyubid Egyptian21
I/26b Trojan20
II/54a Scots-Irish 55 BC-432 AD20
II/65a Gothic at Adrianople 378 AD20
II/65b Tervingi or Early Visigothic 200-407 AD20
II/72d Other Early Frankish, Rugian, or Turcilingi20
III/2 Early Lombard20
III/10b Rajput 747-1303 AD20
III/24a Middle Anglo-Saxon 617-700 AD20
III/62a Northern Sung Chinese 960-1126 AD20
III/66 Fatimid Egyptian20
III/73b Communal Italian 1151-1320 AD20
IV/16 Scots Common20
IV/43c Later Hungarian 1397-1526 AD20
I/6a Early Bedouin 3000-1001 BC19
I/29b Later Philistine 1099-600 BC19
I/51 Later Sargonid Assyrian19
II/65c Alaric and successors 408-419 AD19
II/66 Early Vandal19
II/71 Gepid19
II/83b Later Visigothic 622-720 AD19
III/35b Feudal Spanish 951-1200 AD19
III/45 Pre-Feudal Scots19
I/24a Early Hittite Imperial 1380-1275 BC18
I/26a Achaian18
I/44b Later Neo-Babylonian 604-589 BC and 522-482 BC18
II/9b Syracusan in Africa 310-307 BC18
II/22c Arabo-Aramaean (Hatra) 126 BC-240 AD18
II/41b Eastern Han Chinese 25-189 AD18
II/72b Alamanni 250-506 AD18
II/80c Chionite or Hephthalite Hunnic 356-570 AD18
II/81c British 471-580 AD or Armorican 429-580 AD18
III/78 Scots Isles or Highlands18
IV/47 Golden Horde or Successor18
II/4a Ch'in Chinese 355-221 BC17
II/22a Arabo-Aramaean (Nabataea) 250 BC-106 AD17
II/28b Other Armenian 300 BC-244 AD17
II/31c Hellenistic Greek (Spartan) 278-226 B17
II/60 Caledonian17
II/67b Other Greuthingi, Early Ostrogothic, Herul, Sciri, and Taifali 200-493 AD17
II/72c Suevi 250-584 AD17
III/31 Umayyad Arab17
III/73a Communal Italian 1029-1150 AD17
III/77 Papal Italian17
IV/76 Early Burgundian17
IV/79c League of Constance 1474-1477 AD17
IV/83c Rebel (Lambert Simbel) 1487 AD17
I/2a Early Egyptian 3000-1690 BC16
II/8b Campanian 420-340 BC16
II/13 Samnite16
II/23b Later Pre-Islamic City Arab 312 BC-633 AD16
II/31h Hellenistic Greek (Athenian) 278-146 BC16
II/46b Kushan 50 BC-410 AD16
II/55a Nobades or Blemmye 30 BC-200 AD16
III/10c Other Hindu Indian 545-1510 AD16
III/17 Maurikian Byzantine16
III/21a Italian Lombard 584-774 AD16
III/35a Feudal Spanish 718-950 AD16
III/35c Feudal Spanish 1201-1340 AD16
III/44 Tribal Mongolian16
IV/5a Sicilian 1072-1193 AD16
IV/6c Arab dynasties Syrian 1092-1172 AD16
IV/41 Early Swiss16
IV/75 Timurid16
I/1c Great Sumerian Revolt 2250 BC15
I/2b Early Egyptian 1689-1541 BC15
I/19 Mitanni15
I/25b Early Neo-Assyrian 882-745 BC15
I/42 Neo-Elamite15
I/60b Cyrus' according to the Cyropaedia 546-540 BC15
II/31i Hellenistic Greek (Eleian) 278-146 BC15
II/31j Hellenistic Greek (Aitolian) 278-146 BC15
II/79b Southern Dynasty Chinese 317-589 AD15
III/3 Italian Ostrogothic15
III/48 Rus15
III/75 Islamic Berber15
IV/6a Turkish-ruled and Ayyubid remnant Syrian states 1092-1286 AD15
IV/43a Later Hungarian 1245-1395 AD15
IV/65 Wallachian or Moldovian15
I/15 Later Amorite14
I/17b Later Hyksos 1590-1537 BC14
I/20b Other Syro-Canaanite 1595-1100 BC14
I/44a Early Neo-Babylonian 746-605 BC14
I/58 Meroitic Kushite14
II/14 Ariarathid Kappadokian14
II/25 Bosporan14
II/31a Hellenistic Greek (Boiotian) 278-246 BC14
II/31d Hellenistic Greek (Spartan) 225-223 BC14
II/31e Hellenistic Greek (Spartan) 222-195 BC14
II/55b Nobades or Blemmye 201-831 AD14
III/15 Tibetan14
III/21b Italian Lombard 775-1076 AD14
III/62b Southern Sung Chinese 1127-1279 AD14
III/79 Early Russian14
IV/1a Komnenan Byzantine 1071-1142 AD14
IV/5b Sicilian 1194-1266 AD14
IV/6b Abbasid Iraq 1092-1258 AD14
IV/55a Ottoman 1281-1361 AD14
IV/57b Low Countries 1330-1410 AD14
IV/58 Medieval Irish14
IV/66 Later Polish14
IV/74 Free Company or Armagnac14
I/54 Early Macedonian13
II/26 Siracae, Iazyges, or Later Rhoxolani Sarmatian13
II/31b Hellenistic Greek (Boiotian) 245-146 BC13
II/31f Hellenistic Greek (Achaian) 251-208 BC13
II/31g Hellenistic Greek (Achaian) 207-146 BC13
II/67a Greuthingi (Radagaisus) 401-406 AD13
II/72a Quadi 250-406 AD13
II/81d Strathclyde 580-1034 AD13
III/8 Central Asian City-States13
III/13b Avar 558-631 AD13
III/18 Breton13
III/20c T'ang Chinese 618-755 AD13
III/23a Khmer 605-1431 AD13
III/36 Nan-chao or Ta-li13
III/39 Late T'ang or Five Dynasties Chinese13
III/63b Early Polish 1201-1335 AD13
III/76 Konstantinian Byzantine13
IV/36b Later Muslim Indian 1316-1526 AD13
IV/48 Yuan Chinese13
IV/68e Medieval Spanish 1495-1503 AD13
I/1a Early Sumerian 3000-2800 BC12
I/27 Early Hebrew12
I/43c Massagetae 550-150 BC12
I/46b Kushite Egyptian 727-664 BC12
II/4e Other Chinese 355-202 BC12
II/8a Bruttian or Lucanian 420-203 BC12
II/34 Attalid Pergamene12
II/42b Tamil 301-1370 AD12
II/57 Later Moorish12
II/80b Sabir Hunnic 515-558 AD12
III/5a Middle Frankish (Austrasian or Burgundian)12
III/9b Burmese 1044-1526 AD12
III/12 Christian Nubian12
III/29 Thematic Byzantine12
III/63a Early Polish 960-1200 AD12
IV/1b Komnenan Byzantine 1143-1204 AD12
IV/21b Anglo-Irish 1300-1403 AD12
IV/22 Serbian Empire12
IV/28 Prussian12
IV/45 Mamluk Egyptian12
IV/46 Ilkhanid12
IV/68f Medieval Spanish 1504-1515 AD12
I/7c Early Libyan 665-476 BC11
I/7d Early Libyan 475-70 BC11
I/12 Sumerian Successor11
I/23b Later Vedic Indian 899-501 BC11
I/34b Later Hebrew 968-800 BC11
I/50 Lydian11
II/4d Other Chinese 480-356 BC11
II/6 Bithynian11
II/8c Apulian 420-206 BC11
II/22e Arabo-Aramaean (Edessa, Singara, or Adiabene) 126 BC-240 AD11
II/28a Armenian (Tigranes) 83-69 BC11
II/38a Hsiung-nu 250 BC-303 AD11
II/63 Three Kingdoms or Western Ts'in (Chin) Chinese11
II/70a Burgundi 250-534 AD11
III/1a Northern Slav 580-1218 AD11
III/9a Burmese 500-1043 AD11
III/13a Avar 553-557 AD and 632-826 AD11
III/70 Tuareg11
IV/12d Hawaiian11
IV/18 Lithuanian or Samogitian11
IV/39b Navarrese 1328-1378 AD11
IV/43b Later Hungarian (Crusade of Nicopolis) 1396 AD11
IV/73 Ming Chinese11
I/8b Makkan 1300-312 BC10
I/16 Old and Middle Kingdom Hittite10
I/23a Early Vedic Indian 1500-900 BC10
II/4b Yueh Chinese 480-333 BC10
II/24 Early Rhoxolani Sarmatian10
II/28c Armenian 245-627 AD10
II/42a Tamil 175 BC-300 AD10
II/44 Commagene10
II/46a Kushan 135-51 BC10
III/1c Southern Slav 476-896 AD10
III/5b Middle Frankish (Neustrian, Aquitanian, or Provencal)10
III/64b Ghaznavid 1002-1186 AD10
III/74b Other Seljuk Turkish 1037-1276 AD10
IV/5c Sicilian 1282-1442 AD10
IV/12e Maori10
IV/21a Anglo-Irish 1172-1299 AD10
IV/21c Anglo-Irish 1404-1515 AD10
IV/36a Later Muslim Indian 1206-1315 AD10
IV/38 Murcian or Granadine10
IV/39a Navarrese 1234-1327 AD10
IV/54a Danish 1350-1390 AD10
IV/54b Union 1391-1523 AD10
IV/57a Low Countries 1297-1329 AD10
I/4a Zagros and Anatolian Highland 3000-950 BC9
I/17a Early Hyksos 1645-1591 BC9
I/34a Later Hebrew 1000-969 BC9
I/36a Samnite, Umbrian, Hernician, or Ligurian9
I/36d Other Italian Hill Tribes9
I/53 Saitic Egyptian9
I/56a Early Kyrenaean Greek 630-314 BC9
II/4c Chao Chinese 307-202 BC9
II/22f Any Arabo-Aramaean 312-126 BC9
II/79a Northern Dynasty Chinese 317-589 AD9
II/84 African Vandal9
III/1b Western Slav 741-1003 AD9
III/20a Sui Chinese 581-611 AD9
III/20b Sui Chinese 612-623 AD9
III/38 Arab Indian9
III/64a Ghaznavid 962-1001 AD9
III/69 Western Sudanese9
III/74a Rum 1063-1276 AD9
IV/11 North-Western American9
IV/13e Free Canton9
IV/29 Tupi9
IV/40 Siamese9
IV/44a Post-Mongol Russian 1246-1380 AD9
IV/56 Order of St. John9
IV/81 Inca9
I/8a Makkan, Dilmun, Saba, Mai'in or Qataban 2800-1301 BC8
I/8c Dilmun, Saba, Mai'in, or Qataban 1300-312 BC8
I/9 Early Syrian8
I/11a Akkadian 2334-2193 BC8
I/20a Ugarit 1274-1176 BC8
I/31a Neo-Hittite or Later Aramaean 1100-901 BC8
I/31b Neo-Hittite or Later Aramaean 900-710 BC8
I/34c Later Hebrew 799-586 BC8
I/41b Median 620-550 BC8
I/56b Later Kyrenaean Greek 313-74 BC8
II/22d Arabo-Aramaean (Characene) 126 BC-222 AD8
II/23c Later Pre-Islamic Yemeni 312 BC-633 AD8
II/28d Gordyene 147 BC-225 AD8
II/51 Late Judaean8
II/61b Mu-jung Hsien-pi 300-431 AD8
II/70b Limigantes 334-359 AD8
III/14c Bulgar 804-1018 AD8
III/22c Maya 1283-1461 AD8
III/56 Khitan-Liao8
III/71c Georgian 1122-1683 AD8
IV/32 Romanian Frank8
IV/52 Later Nomadic Mongol8
IV/54c Swedish 1391-1523 AD8
IV/54d Other Medieval Scandinavian 1280-1523 AD8
IV/68a Medieval Portuguese 1340-1494 AD8
IV/68d Castilian 1340-1478 or Spanish 1479-1494 AD8
IV/69 Albanian8
I/4b Guti "Great Revolt" 2250-2112 BC7
I/6c Early Aramaean 2000-1101 BC7
I/21b Later Babylonian 889-747 BC7
I/41a Medes, Zikirtu, Andia, or Parsua 835-621 BC7
I/46c Later Kushite 663-593 BC7
I/57a Etruscan League 600-400 BC7
I/57b Etruscan League 399-280 BC7
II/22b Arabo-Aramaean (Emesa) 51 BC-72 AD7
II/38b Southern Hsiung-nu 304-439 AD7
II/43 Maccabean Jewish7
II/59 Jewish Revolts7
III/10a Kanauj 606-647 AD7
III/14a Bulgar 558-674 AD7
III/14b Bulgar 675-803 AD7
III/23b Cham 605-1471 AD7
III/47 Pecheneg7
III/57 Koryo Dynasty Korean7
III/67 Hsi-Hsia7
III/71b Georgian 1090-1121 AD7
IV/2 Cilician Armenian7
IV/42 Islamic Persian7
IV/44b Post-Mongol Russian 1381-1533 AD7
I/4d Gasgan 1650-950 BC6
I/5a Early Susiana or Elamite 3000-2601 BC6
I/5c Early Susiana or Elamite 2100-1401 BC6
I/10 Melukhkhan or Pre-Vedic Indian6
I/14b European Bronze Age 1400-701 BC6
I/21a Kassite Babylonian 1595-890 BC6
I/32a Western Chou 1100-701 BC6
I/32c Other Chinese 700-480 BC6
I/35b Cypriot or Phoenician 900-666 BC6
I/55a Etruscan 650-600 BC6
II/42d Sinhalese 301-1515 AD6
II/45a First Servile War 135-132 BC6
II/45b Second Servile War 103-99 BC6
II/62a Abyssinian or Horn-of-Africa 100-1284 AD6
III/22d Maya 1462-1546 AD6
III/25c Khawarij 658-873 AD6
III/26a Early Serbian 627-1180 AD6
III/41b Chichimec or Pueblo Culture6
III/50 Zanj Revolt6
III/54a Dynastic Bedouin 890-1150 AD6
III/58a Baghdad Buyid 946-975 AD6
III/71a Georgian 1008-1089 AD6
III/80 Cuman or Kipchak6
IV/14a Jurchen-Chin 1114-1125 AD6
IV/14b Jurchen-Chin 1126-1234 AD6
IV/19a Tarascan or Toltec-Chichimec6
IV/19c Spanish and Tlaxcalan6
IV/53 Mixtec, Zapotec, or West Mexican6
IV/60 Catalan Company6
IV/68b Medieval Portuguese 1495-1515 AD6
IV/68c Aragonese 1340-1478 AD6
IV/77 Black Sheep or White Sheep Turkoman6
I/5b Early Susiana or Elamite 2600-2101 BC5
I/14d Chinese Border Tribes 2000-401 BC5
I/30a Dark Age and Geometric Greek 1160-901 BC5
I/30c Dark Age and Geometric Greek 724-650 BC5
I/32b Wu or Yueh Chinese 584-480 BC5
I/46a Early Kushite 745-728 BC5
I/55b Roman 650-578 BC5
I/55c Latin 650-400 BC5
I/55d Latin 399-338 BC5
I/59 Tullian Roman5
I/62 Lykian5
II/21c Former Ch'in Chinese 351-394 AD5
II/38c Juan-juan 308-555 AD5
II/42c Sinhalese 175 BC-300 AD5
II/55c Beja 832-1500 AD5
II/61a Wu-huan, T'u-yu-hun, or Hsien-pi 90-316 AD5
II/61d Khitan or Hsi 350-1000 AD5
II/75 Paekche or Kaya Korean5
II/76 Koguryo Korean5
III/11a Turfan Uighur 860-1330 AD5
III/11b Other Central Asian Turkish 550-1330 AD5
III/22a Maya 600-987 AD5
III/22b Maya 988-1282 AD5
III/54b Qaramita 897-1078 AD5
IV/9 Eastern Forest American5
IV/10 Mound Builder American5
IV/12c Other Polynesian5
IV/27 Estonian5
IV/31 Nikian Byzantine5
IV/39c Navarrese Company in Greece 1378-1430 AD5
IV/51b Morean Byzantine 1347-1460 AD5
IV/78 Yi Dynasty Korean5
I/11b Third Dynasty of Ur 2112-2004 BC4
I/13b Shang Chinese 1299-1017 BC4
I/14c European Iron Age 700-315 BC4
I/14f Red Ti 788-588 BC4
I/14g I 2000-315 BC4
I/30b Dark Age and Geometric Greek 900-725 BC4
I/33b Later Villanovan Italian 800-650 BC4
I/35a Cypriot or Phoenician 1000-901 BC4
I/35c Cypriot or Phoenician 665-490 BC4
I/36b Sardinian 700-124 BC4
I/49d Early Vietnamese 248-938 AD4
II/21a Ch'iang and Ti Chinese 315 BC-302 AD4
II/21b Ch'iang and Ti Chinese 303-550 AD4
II/61c Other Hsien-pi or T'u-yu-hun 317-431 AD4
II/62b Abyssianian or Horn-of-Africa 1285-1529 AD4
III/16 Khazar4
III/43b Saffarid Khurasanian 861-1073 AD4
III/43c Samanid Khurasanian 900-999 AD4
III/68a Early Hungarian 997-1102 AD4
III/68b Early Hungarian 1103-1245 AD4
IV/8 Ghurid4
IV/12b Other Melanesian4
IV/15 Qara-Khitan4
IV/26 Lusignan Cypriot4
IV/34 Trapezuntine Byzantine4
IV/71b Coastal Peruvian 1350-1490 AD4
IV/72 Amazonian4
IV/84a Araucanian 1461-1552 AD4
I/5d Early Susiana or Elamite 1400-800 BC3
I/13a Hsia and Shang Chinese 2000-1300 BC3
I/14e Jung or Ch'iang 400-315 BC3
I/33a Early Villanovan Italian 1000-801 BC3
I/35d Cypriot or Phoenician 489-332 BC3
I/37b Taurus or Zagros Highland 749-610 BC3
I/38 Libyan Egyptian3
I/64a Yayoi culture Japanese 500 BC-274 AD3
II/46c Kushan Kidarite 411-477 AD3
II/50 Hasmonean Jewish3
II/77a Shilla Korean 300-670 AD3
II/77b Shilla Korean 671-935 AD3
III/7a Pre-Samurai Japanese (Kofun) 500-645 AD3
III/7b Ritsuryo or Early Heian 646-900 AD3
III/26b Early Croatian 627-1089 AD3
III/27 Rshtuni Armenian3
III/30a Magyar 650-895 AD3
III/30b Magyar 896-1003 AD3
III/32 Volga Bulgar3
III/43a Tahirid Khurasanian 821-873 AD3
III/49 Tulunid or Iqshidid Egyptian3
III/51 Bagratid Armenian3
III/61 Dynastic Kurdish3
IV/33 Epirot Byzantine3
IV/37a Malay or Sumatran3
IV/37c Javanese3
IV/49 Anatolian Turkoman3
IV/50 Palaiologan Byzantine3
IV/51a Morean Byzantine 1262-1346 AD3
IV/71a Chimu Imperial 1350-1480 AD3
I/14a European Bronze Age 2000-1401 BC2
I/36c Sicel 480-380 BC2
I/37a Taurus or Zagros Highland 950-750 BC2
I/39b Urartian 764-585 BC2
I/40 Phrygian2
I/49b Nan-Yueh 206-111 BC2
I/55e Umbrian 650-290 BC2
I/63 Paionian2
I/64b Kofun culture Japanese 275-407 AD2
I/64c Kofun culture Japanese 408-500 AD2
III/6a Emishi 500-699 AD2
III/6b Emishi 700-878 AD2
III/41a Proto-Toltec 800-930 AD or Proto-Aztec 800-1325 AD2
III/58b Musfirid 941-984 AD2
III/58c Other Dailami 927-1090 AD2
IV/12a Fijian, Samoan, or Tongan2
IV/19b Chinantec2
IV/24a Khwarizmian state 1186-1231 AD2
IV/24b Khwarizmian refugee 1232-1246 AD2
IV/37b Moluccan2
IV/67 Jalayirid2
IV/70 Chanca or Canari2
IV/84b Other Mapuche 1461-1552 AD2
I/4c Hurrian or Early Kassite or Nairi1
I/39a Urartian 880-765 BC1
I/49a Van-lang or Au Lac Vietnamese 700-207 BC1
I/49c Early Vietnamese 110 BC-247 AD1
II/29 Tien and K'un-ming Chinese1
III/42a Sha-t'o Turkish 808-880 AD1
III/42b Sha-t'o Turkish 881-951 AD1
III/60 Medieval Vietnamese1
IV/25 Later Bulgar1
IV/37d Other Indonesian and Malay1
III/59 Toltec0